7-8 September 2014                             3rd International Symposium for Olympic Research

Description of the Project


The goal of the research project is to investigate the structure of values that are explicitly and implicitly associated with the Olympic Games. We like to know if the Olympic Idea is withheld, also if and how the perception is changing. Therefore we aim to find out whether some of the Olympic values are threatened today, and which values have changed or remained constant over time. The expected results are a verification of the Olympic values via rigorous and state-of-the art empirical studies, thus mean we update basic knowledge for future Olympic research.


The research project includes several sub-studies which are related and even internally connected to each other.


First study



Second study









Third study




Fourth study







Fifth study



Sixth study




Methods during the overall research process


For this project a multi-method approach will be used as follows:


• Desk research in order to find values in scholarly works; literature review


• Qualitative research (e.g., essays, expert interviews with open-ended questions)


• Quantitative research (e.g., Delphi method, consumer survey, Implicit Association Test)


The crucial step in our studies is the identification of the Olympic values that are associated with the Games today. This will be done by cluster analyses and rigorous statistical scale development procedures (i.e., exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses). The resulting scale delivers a conclusive list of items that represent the structure of the Olympic values. This scale will be evaluated in one country first using an explicit measurement tool (reflecting information that is consciously retrieved by consumers) and an implicit measurement tool (reflecting automatic associations between values and the Olympic brand made by consumers; using the Implicit Association Test).


we interview as many as possible Olympic scholars and those being closed to the Olympic movement in order to get first information on Olympic Values and to identify the key Olympic researchers.

we conduct a qualitative study (with discourse analysis) on Olympic values with reference to the London 2012 and Sochi 2014 Olympic Games among the central Olympic scholars worldwide by doing a discourse analysis. The study aims to explore new issues, views, value propositions, as well as to assess their influence on the Olympic movement.


One-page Essay: Please describe how London 2012 and Sochi 2014 supported /changed the Olympic movement.


One-page Essay: Please describe how the Olympic movement changed since Sydney 2000, and how you believe it will develop in the near future.

we survey quantitatively the Olympic values collected in the first study. The aim is to identify importance of the values for the Olympic Movement. The result is a comprehensive list of Olympic value items to be used on consumer surveys in Three (scale development).

we will conduct an expert meeting to exchange findings on the Olympic Values as well as we intend to conduct deep interviews and focus group discussions (qualitative research) on the Olympic Values and the perception on it.

we like to validate the list here. To do that properly we need to identify the dimensions of the Olympic Values by a consumer sample survey. This teaches us about the structure of Olympic value items. Surveys will be run in Brazil and in Germany by using a representative sample. We not only develop the “Olympic Value scale” in this project, we also will detect whether the Brazilian social protests and/or the vote of the German population against Munich 2022 have been born from a adverseness to the Olympic Movement or if it is based on other facts (this part will be connected with study 1 – discourse analysis).

the final research will be a prediction of the development of the Olympic Movement by experts (using the Delphi methodology).

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